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Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxemia has been identified as the leading cause of neonatal alpaca mortality in Peru (Ramírez, ). This paper analyse the beneficial effect of a multivalent vaccine in reducing mortality rates due to enterotoxemia in alpaca crias. The programme was. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia | Histopathological.

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Diseases of alpacas

Most of enterotoxemiaa information presented here comes from the following conference paper which is also available on the internet: Histopathology showed a necrotising, histiocytic myositis with the enterotxemia of degenerate and non-degenerate protozoa. Hypocalcaemia appears to be rare in alpacas, 11 but has been seen in lactating females in Australia. Once a roll hole is established they will return to it repeatedly to roll. The most effective treatments are grazing in shaded paddocks, increasing time indoors or covering affected areas with a zinc oxide or titanium dioxide based sun block.

There is either death, or instant recovery, within minutes of collapse.

There is some practical information on the internet which provides tips on blood collection. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, ruling out other differential diagnoses, and response to zinc supplementation. Clinically affected alpacas had hypoproteinaemia. Five-in-one Clostridial vaccine is unlikely to provide protection against this enterotoxaemia.


Cryptosporidium and Giardia are reported as causes of diarrhoea in crias. Gastric ulcers occur most commonly in the third stomach compartment C3. The hair test for PI animals is not validated for alpacas, however the virology section have tested a small number of positive hairs from the USA and were able to detect all PI animals.

When feeding these high-risk feedstuffs, divide the daily allotment for each animal into as many small feedings as is feasible say, three to four feedingsrather than providing such feeds in a single, large meal. Al;acas involves the forceful expulsion of stomach content. Predisposing causes include increased access to grain or abrupt dietary changes with reduced fibre intake. Disease in alpacas has not been reported in Australia.


Some that have been reported include rhododendrons, azaleas and oleander. Camelids with acute entfrotoxemia often have values of 4 to 4. Signs are similar to those occurring with EEE including inappetence, fever, lethargy, ataxia, stiff gaits, seizures, recumbency, torticollis or opisthotonus, and vestibular signs. Skin abscesses may be due to penetrating grass seeds such as barley grass and spear grass.

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The impact of the vaccination was evaluated by comparing total and specific neonatal mortality rates due to enterotoxemia relative to the same rates recorded for the year prior to initiation of the programme These bacteria are normally found in low numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of all sheep and goats.


During the outbreak in horses, a number of alpacas with neurological signs were tested, but were serologically negative. In general anything under 6.

Measurement of serum phosphorus and vitamin D is helpful in confirming the diagnosis however it is currently difficult to find laboratories which offer vitamin D testing in animals.

The digestive process in camelids is similar to that of ruminants. For sheep and goats, there are multiple vaccines available that induce immunity to the toxins generated by Clostridium perfringens types C and D. However in Germany inthe death of a single alpaca was reported to be due to Enterotoxwmia virus infection, during a Bluetongue virus outbreak affecting sheep and cattle. The effects of leptospirosis are not clearly defined in camelids. The most consistent necropsy findings were enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes DDx lymphoma.

Treatment should be repeated weekly to biweekly for 2 to 4 treatments to eliminate mites newly alpaca from eggs. Clinical signs include head tremor and swaying. Diarrhoea is usually explosive and watery. It is likely that gastric filling and emptying functions are very important in ulcer development.